Field research stands in opposition to research conducted in a laboratory or academic setting. It is less technically known as field work, a term originating in farm and plantation labor, and a term sometimes used to refer to the temporary fortifications constructed prior to battle.
Participant observation, data collection, and survey research are examples of field research, in contrast to what is often called experimental or lab research.
Field research is the primary marketing technique used by businesses to research their target market.
Field research involves the collection of primary data or information that is new. This is collected through surveys and questionnaires that are made out specifically for a purpose. Imagine our forthcoming visit to a certain factory subject of our research. What are the plans? How will we do it? We intend to carry out the field research through our class visit to the Coca Cola factory in Lisbolnsert non-formatted text herein. We will send a questionnaire to the marketing manager of Coca Cola before the visit and then when we visit the factory we will be given a tour of the production line and observe what is happening. Then we can get our questions answered by someone who knows all about the production methods and the marketing of the product.
The Basic Parts of Field Research Paper
DIFFERENT FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES IN THE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES
A Research Paper
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
Of the requirements in EN1023
(Writing in the Discipline)
Prof. Rosemariebeth Dizon
Joyce Anne M. Basilio
Nancy D. Ferriols
Cristel Joshua M. Lingon
Jacquielyn Q. Layug
Grace Ann H. Marollano
Zayette M. Tarriella
Aster May Z. Villapando
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
The researchers would like to extend their profound gratitude to the following whose valuable assistance has made this research project possible.
Prof. Rosemariebeth Dizon, Professor and adviser, for her assistance, guidance, constructive criticism, and for imparting the principles of research that geared towards the improvement of this study.
The employees of PUP, for lending their busy time in answering the questionnaires.
Members of the families, for the understanding, and providing financial and moral support.
Classmates and friends, for the help, and assistance, and guidance.
And most of all, to GOD ALMIGHTY, the Greatest Teacher of them all, without WHOM everything is not possible. HE who gave us strength, courage, and perseverance, this work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
The Problem and its background
Hiring people who are motivated to do what employers need remains one of the biggest challenges in business today. Employees are considered just another input into the production of goods and services of a company. Once motivated, they will do what they want and need to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the ivory tower they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or by external stimulus. Hence, motivation is a skill that must be learnt.
Motivation creates feelings that drive people to discover the unknown. It seems as everyone is driven by the same forces. Even though motivation sometimes leads to some negative consequences, they can also have positive outcome.
Motivation is a difficult subject, touching on several disciplines. In spite of enormous researchers, basic as well as applied, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practice to understand motivation, one must understand human nature itself. Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. Understanding and appreciation of this is a prerequisite so effective employee motivation in the workplace and therefore effective management and leadership.
Statement of the Problem
The study is aimed to assess the different motivating factors affecting the job performance of the employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
To delve into specifics of this investigation, the following questions were answered:
1. To what extent do the following factors affect the level of performances of employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines:
· Extrinsic Factors
a. benefits from the company
· Intrinsic Factors
a. interpersonal relations
b. accomplishments and recognition
2. How do extrinsic motivations affect the performance of the employees?
3. How do intrinsic motivations affect employees?
4. How does motivation contribute to the over-all success of the company?
Scope and Limitation
This study was conducted to assess the different motivators that enhance the performance of the employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
This study is delimited to evaluation of employee’s job performance in line with motivators. The concentration of this research is to show the effects of these motivators in the university employees.
This study also focused on the practical knowledge, skills, competence, and attitudes of employees as affected by these motivators to achieve immediately the goals to become effective and productive office personnel.
Definition of Terms
The terms below are defined conceptually and operationally to furnish a common ground for understanding, clarity, and communication between the researchers and the readers.
Accomplishments this is an achievement an employees received for something done admirably and creditably.
Benefits are something that is advantageous or good. This is a form of payment or gift, as one made to help someone to motivate in their works.
Enormous is said to be marked extraordinary great size, exceeding or transcending usual bounds or commonly accepted motions.
Human Nature the complex of behavioral patterns, attitudes, and ideas which man has acquired socially.
Motivation is the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.
Office employees a person who serves as worker in the office. He/she performs tasked related to office procedures and policies.
Recognition as used in this study, this acknowledgement of achievement, service, merit, etc.
Survival is a continuation of life or existence. It is the fact of living or lasting beyond another.
Review of Related Literature
Many authors have defined the concept of motivation. According to Kreitner in 1995, this is a psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction1. On Buford, Bedeian, and Linder side, this is a pre-disposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specifics, unmet needs. As Higgins said, motivation is an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need2. as a whole, motivation operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goal.
Companies need a motivated employee for survival. Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. A motivated employee helps organizations, companies, and businesses survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effective, manager needs to understand what motivates employees with in the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions, a manager motivating employees is arguably the most complex based to charges constantly. An example is given by Kovach Bowen and Radhakrishma, this is due to the fact that what motivates employees, wherein he said that research suggests that as employee’s income increase, money becomes less of a motivator, and also, as employees get older, interest in work becomes more of a motivator.
Sanjeev Sharma cited the principles to keep in mind while working Employees Motivation3:
1. Motivating employees starts with motivating oneself. Enthusiasm is contagious. If one is enthusiastic with his job, it is much easier for others
to be, too. Also, if one is doing a good job of taking care of oneself and one’s own job, he has much clearer perspective on how others are doing theirs. A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding you own motivations. The key to helping motivate your employees is to understand what motivates them.
2. Key supporting the motivation of one employee understands what motivates each of them. A different thing motivates each person.
3. Always work to align goals of organization with the goal of employees. Employees can all be fired up about their work and be working very hard. However, if the results of their work don’t contribute to the goals of the organization, then the organization is not any better off than if the employees are sitting on their hands – may worse off! Therefore, it’s critical that managers and supervisors know what they want from their employees.
4. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a task: Organization changes all the time, as do people indeed, it is an ongoing process that sustains an environment where employees can strongly motivate themselves. If you took at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process, then you’ll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself.
Reward system is a key subsystem of HRM. The total reward system consist of both intrinsic aspects (supplied by the work itself) extrinsic aspect (supplied by the organizations). The intrinsic rewards consist of those elements of the work which provide ascent of achievement, responsibility, challenge, control participation, including, while the extrinsic rewards have both deal with financial elements.
Intrinsic rewards depend on the person who views whether or not the reward given actually encourages work performance. The rewards are direrctly related to the job itself and are utilized as motivators. Some example of intrinsic rewards are challenging or exciting assignments, job freedom and discretion, delegation of some responsibilities, participation in decision-making, opportunities for personal and mental growth, and diversity of activities (Conception et.at., 1991).
Extrinsic rewards, on the other hand, are the more tangible, less perception dependent elements of compensation, given by the organization to employees (Conception et.al., 1991) these kinds of rewards should be carefully considered before being applied.
They are the most obvious kind of payment and could cause misunderstanding among organizational members. Extrinsic rewards are further classified into two categories, namely: 1) direct 2) indirect.
Motivation is the intrinsic inducement that peoples the individual to think, feel, and perform in certain ways. According to this definition by Conception, Rodil, A. Martires(1991), motivation is an internalized function, making it very hard to influence other because “It come from within, from a persons own psychic”.
This research was undertaken to determine some motivating factors that affect the performance of the employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Sta. Mesa, Manila.
This chapter presents the method of research used by the reaserchers, the survey population, survey instrument, collection of data, and the statistical treatment applied.
Research Method Used
The study used the descriptive survey method or research utilizing questionnaire checklist in fulfilling the objective of the study that is “Different Factors that Motivate Employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.” A survey questionnaire was employed to solicit the perceptions and performances of the employees of PUP and their perceived relation between motivation and their performance.
This pattern reveals condition or relationships that exist or do not exist, practices that prevail or don prevail, beliefs or points of view or attitudes that are held or not held, processes that are going on or otherwise effects that are being felt or trends that are developing; thus it was chosen as the design of the present study which aimed to determine and analyze the factors that motivate the employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
Description of the Respondents
This research study selected employees of PUP of different age, sex, and their length of service in the university. A total of 312 respondents were asked to answer the questionnaire developed by the researchers regarding the information needed for which this study is used.
The study employed the survey-questionnaire with open-ended, close-ended and multi-response as main instrument to gather data on the assessment of motivation of the respondents.
Data Gathering Procedure
The research phase was conducted during the 2nd semester of School Year 2006-2007 entailing the following activities:
1. A survey-questionnaire was drafted by the researchers and presented to their professor for approval.
2. A letter of request have been written and sent to the Head of Human Resource Department of PUP inquiring for the total population of the office employees of the university.
3. The researcher made a letter asking for permission to conduct a survey to a particular office and department of the university.
4. After retrieving the questionnaire, the researchers made the tally sheet and then prepared the tables for statistical treatment, presentation, analysis, and interpretation.
For the statistical treatment, the researchers made use of the percentage to quantify the date gathered, wherein they used a simple percentage formula:
P = n / N x 100
Wherein: P = percentage
n = responses
N = total # of responses
Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation
The purpose of this study was to assist the different factors that motivate the employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines of Sta. Mesa, Manila. Specially, it looked into the conditions or relationships that existed or did not exist, practices that prevailed or did not prevail, beliefs or attitudes that were held or not held and processes that were going on or effects or trends that were being felt or that were developing
To accomplish this objective the researchers used the Sloven Formula in order to determine who among the PUP employees should act as their respondents.
This study employed the survey questionnaire with the combination of open-ended and close-ended questions. Data were gathered from a total of 312 respondents, with 127 female and 130 male. However, a total of 55 respondents did not indicate their gender.
Distribution of Respondents as to Age
Table 1 shows the age frequency percentage, and rank distribution of the respondents which was tallied according to brackets of 5 years. Unfortunately, majority of the respondents did not indicate their age in the survey with 109 or 34.94 percent of them. Meanwhile, a total of 47 respondents or 16.06 percent belong to the age bracket of 41-45 years old. Following them are 32 or 10.25 of who said they are between 36 and 40 years old. Likewise there are 28 respondents or 8.97 percent who claimed that they are between 51-55 age brackets. There are also 24 respondents or 7.69 percent said that they are between 31 to 35 years of age. There is a total of 6.09 percent or 19 employees who are 26-30 years old, while 14 or 4.49 percent are in the bracket of 56-60 years old. A short percentage of 1.28 percent or 4 respondents are 25 years old and below; only two or 0.64 percent are between 61-65 years old. Only one or 0.32 percent revealed in bracket of 71 years old and above.
Distribution of Respondents as to Status of Employment
Most of the respondents, 102 or 33 percent disclosed they are temporary employees. Some 88 or 28 percent did not deny they are in casual position. Only 67 or 12 percent are permanent employees. And only 55 or 18 percent revealed they are still contractual.
Distribution of respondents as to Length of Service
Table 3 shows the results of the respondents’ length of service in PUP. There are 79 or 25.32 percent of the respondents who have served the institution for 11-15 years. Seventy seven or 24.68 percent have served PUP for 16-20 years. A total of 52 respondents or 16.67 percent are in service for 6-10 years and 2 or 6.37 of have been working in PUP for 26-30 years. There are 21 or 6.73 percent of the respondents who have been in service for 26-30 years, likewise those who have served for 1-5 year. Less than ten percent of the total sample has been in the service for more that 30 years. There are eleven or 3.53 percent who have been in the university for 31-35 years. For serving 41 years and about, there were. There are only two or 0.64 percent who claimed that they are with the university for merely one year, while the remaining 12 or 3.85 percent of the respondents left the questions unanswered.
Summary of Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations
The purpose of this study is to find out the different factors that motivates the employees of Polytechnic University of the Philippines. To come up with this aim, the descriptive survey method was used to determine the driving force of the employees and their perceived relation between motivation and their performance. Specifically, the study aims to know how different motivating factors affect the job performance of the employees of PUP.
Summary of Findings
The study was purported to make assessment of the different factors that motivate the employees of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Sta. Mesa, Manila.
It is common knowledge that employees who work for a certain agency or company are naturally motivated. The employees’ natural motivation relies on the fact that all people have human desires for affiliation, achievement, and for control and power over their work.
Motivation is psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. This is an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need. As a whole, it is an inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals.
An institution like PUP needs motivated employees for survival. They are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. They can help the PUP become more productive.
In this study, the researchers tried to find out there motivating factors that determined the efficiency and productivity of some PUP employees.
Based on the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered, the researchers arrived at the following findings:
1. Majority of the employees belong to the middle age brackets (ages 41 – 45 years old). Nobody belong to the age bracket of 66 – 70 years old but there is one respondent who belongs to 71 years old and above, there are only four who belong to 25 years old and below.
2. There are a total of 127 respondents who are female and 130 who are male. However, 55 respondents did not indicate their gender.
3. Employees are highly motivated by salary and benefits. They are least motivated by interpersonal relations.
4. Employees are highly motivated by the benefits they receive from PUP, still they are least motivated by interpersonal relationship when come to their job performance.
5. PUP offers incentives and bonuses annually.
Based on the findings, the researchers have drawn the following conclusions.
1. The level of performance of the employees is highly affected by the extrinsic factors specifically, salary. This is maybe because a higher pay lessens their worries about finances thus making them perform well.
2. Employees are highly motivated by the benefits they receive because they believe they become more secured with these, however, they are least motivated by interpersonal relationship.
3. Employees perform their work effectively because their commitment to their job.
4. Efficiency of work contributes greatly to a good working relationship between the boss and employee. Different views and opinion can hinder is achieving a good working relationship.
5. Since employees are highly motivated by motivators given by PUP, they become more effective and more productive. This results to the success of the institution.
After drawing conclusions, the researchers offered the following recommendation for implementation and for further study in the future:
1. Since employees are highly motivated by extrinsic factors, PUP has to offer them more benefits and incentives.
2. Since employees are more motivated by bonuses given, there employees need to receive their bonuses regularly.
3. The institution has to see to it are given performance evaluation to find out their effectiveness as well as their commitment to their job.
4. Employees have to be offered higher salary and more benefits for them to perform their job very well.
5. A more critical and detailed study is recommended for a better assessment of the employees’ motivating factors in relation with their job performance.
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